Ancient egypt timeline brendan s island

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Ancient Egypt Timeline

By Dr John Baines Source:

Years

Periods / Dynasties

3100-2950 BC Late Predynastic Period

Main events

? Earliest known hieroglyphic writing ? Foundation of the Egyptian state

2950-2575 BC Early Dynastic Period (1st-3rd Dynasties)

? Creation of the capital city of Memphis ? Intensive contact with Palestine ? The first pyramid is built - the Step Pyramid

at Saqqara

2575-2150 BC

Old Kingdom (4th-8th Dynasties)

? The Great Pyramids are built at Dahshur and Giza

? Pyramids and elite tombs include the first extensive inscriptions

2125-1975 BC 1st Intermediate Period ? Egypt splits into two smaller states, ruled

(9th-11th Dynasties)

from Memphis in the north and Thebes in the

south

1975-1640 BC

Middle Kingdom ? Mentuhotep reunites Egypt (11th-14th Dynasties) ? Amenemhat I founds a new royal residence

near Memphis ? Egypt conquers Lower Nubia under

Senwosret I and III ? Classical period of art and literature

1630- 1520 BC 2nd Intermediate Period ? Hyksos kings seize power in the north (15th-17th Dynasties) ? Theban 17th dynasty in the south

1539-1075 BC

New Kingdom ? Egyptian empire in Near East and Nubia (18th-20th Dynasties) ? Elaborate tombs of the Valley of Kings

? Rule of woman pharaoh Hatshepsut ? King Akhenaten attempts to introduce a

monotheistic religion ? Brief reign of Tutankhamun ? Ramesses II rules for 67 years

1075-715 BC 3rd Intermediate Period ? Disunity and Libyan settlement in Egypt (21st-25th Dynasties) ? Nubians conquer Egypt (late 8th century)

715-332 BC

Late Period (20th-30th Dynasties, 2nd Persian

Period)

? Egypt conquered briefly by Assyrians ? Cultural revival under kings from Sais ? Persian conquest of Egypt (525 BC) ? Egypt independent again (404-343 BC)

332 BC-395 AD

Greco-Roman Period (Macedonians, Ptolemies,

and Romans)

? Alexander the Great occupies Egypt ? Alexander's general, Ptolemy, becomes king

and founds a dynasty ? The Rosetta Stone is carved (196 BC) ? Cleopatra VII reigns (51-30 BC) ? Egypt becomes a province of the Roman

Empire (30 BC)

About this timeline

The dates are calculated from ancient lists, especially the Turin royal papyrus, and from various other sources. The margin of error rises from a decade or so in the 3rd Intermediate Period and New Kingdom to perhaps 150 years for the 1st Dynasty; dates for the 3rd millennium are given for whole dynasties and are rounded, as are numerous later dates. From the 12th Dynasty on, possible sequences of dates can be calculated from astronomical evidence; currently accepted sequences are used here. Dates from 664 BCE on are precise to within a year.

About the author

The timeline was compiled by John Baines, Professor of Egyptology, University of Oxford. He is co-author with Jaromir Malek of Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (2nd edition, 2000) and author of Fecundity figures: Egyptian personification and the iconology of a genre (reprinted 2001)

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