C a b of cpr for bls provider

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C-A-B of CPR for BLS ProviderComponentAdults and Adolescents(Puberty to Adulthood)Children(Age 1 year to Puberty)Infants(Age Less Than 1 year Excluding Newborns)Scene SafetyMake sure the environment is safe for rescuers and victimRecognition of Cardiac ArrestCheck for responsivenessNo breathing or only gasping (ie, no normal breathing)No definite pulse felt within 10 seconds(Breathing and pulse check can be performed simultaneously in less than 10 seconds)Activation of Emergency Response SystemIf you are alone with no mobilephone, leave the victim to activate the emergency response system and get the AED before beginning CPROtherwise, send someone andbegin CPR immediately;use the AED as soon as it is availableWitnessed collapseFollow steps for adults and adolescents on the leftUnwitnessed collapseGive 2 minutes of CPRLeave the victim to activate the emergency response system and get the AEDReturn to the child or infant and resume CPR;use the AED as soon as it is availableCompression-VentilationRatio withoutAdvanced Airway1 or 2 Rescuers30:21 Rescuer30:22 or more Rescuers15:2Compression-VentilationRatio withAdvanced AirwayContinuous compressions at a rate of 100-120/minGive 1 breath every 6 seconds (10 breaths/min)Compression Rate100-120/minCompression DepthAt least 2 inches (5 cm)At least one third AP diameter of chestAbout 2 inches (5 cm)At least one third AP diameter of chestAbout 1 1/2 inches (4 cm)Hand Placement2 hands on the lower half of the breastbone (sternum)2 hands or 1 hand (optimal for very small child) on the lower half of the breastbone (sternum)1 Rescuer2 fingers in the center of the chest, just below the nipple line2 or more Rescuers2 thumb-encircling hands in thecenter of the chest just below the nipple lineChest RecoilAllow full recoil of chest after each compression; do not lean on the chest after each compressionMinimizing InterruptionsLimit interruption in chest compressions to less than 10 secondsAbbreviations: AED, Automated External Defibrillator; AP, Anterior-Posterior; CPR, CardioPulmonary ResuscitationHigh Quality CPRPush hard (at least 2 inches [5cm])Push fast: Compress at a rate of 100 to 120/minMinimize interruptions in compressions to less than 10 secondsAllow for complete chest recoil between compressionsDo not lean on the chest between compressionsSwitch rescuers about every 2 minutes or sooner to avoid fatigueAvoid excessive ventilation, delivering breaths over 1 second that produce visible chest risePerforming high quality CPR is most likely to positively impact victim’s survivalA victim who is unresponsive with no normal breathing and no pulse requires high-quality CPRYou witness a sudden collapse. Victim is unresponsive, you hear gasping sounds, and there is no pulse-begin CPR. Gasps are not normal breathingHigh Quality CPRCompressions:RatioRatio for compressions to breaths for 1-rescuer ADULT, CHILD and INFANT CPR is 30 compressions to 2 breathsDepthDepth of compression for an INFANT is at least one third the depth of the chest, about 1 1/2 inches (4 cm)Depth of compression for a CHILD is at least one third the depth of the chest, about 2 inches (5 cm)Depth of compression for an ADULT is at least 2 inches (5 cm)RateRate of chest compressions for ADULT, CHILD and INFANT CPR is 100 to 120 per minuteRecoilComplete chest recoil is important when performing high quality CPR to allow the heart to adequately refill between compressionsBreaths:Rescuers ensure that they are providing effective breaths with a bag-mask device by observing chest rise with breathTwo rescuers:Rescuers switch positions during CPR about every 2 minutesTo support a team-based resuscitation attempt, 2 rescuers alternate giving high quality chest compressionsTwo rescuers begin high-quality CPR by alternating the compressor role every 2 minutesTeam DynamicsTeam Dynamics: 1.) Clear Roles and Responsibilities 2.) Knowing your Limitations 3.) Constructive InterventionMatch statement with appropriate element of team dynamics:“The team functions smoothly when all team members know their positions, functions, and tasks”—Clear Roles and Responsibilities“Members of the team know their boundaries and ask for help before the resuscitation attempt worsens”—Knowing your LimitationsIf the person giving chest compressions is not allowing for complete chest recoil, tell the compressor you notice decreased chest recoil—Constructive InterventionAutomated External Defibrillator-AED 3 P’s—Power Pads Plug-inDefibrillation is important because it can restore a regular cardiac rhythmRapid defibrillation is important to survival because it eliminates the abnormal heart rhythmWhen the AED arrives, the first step is to turn on the AEDAfter the AED pads are attached to the victim’s bare chest and the AED detects ventricular fibrillation, the next step is to follow the AED promptsA hairy chest is a consideration when using an AED, the pads may not stick and may fail to deliver a shockIf you need to use an AED on someone who has been submerged in water, pull the victim out of water and wipe the chest before attaching the AED padsForeign Body Airway Obstruction - ChokingThe first course of action for a victim with a foreign-body airway obstruction who becomes unresponsive, start CPR, beginning with chest compressionsWhen performing CPR on an unresponsive choking victim, each time you open the airway, look for the obstructing objectAn INFANT is responsive and choking with a severe airway obstruction, give sets of 5 back slaps and 5 chest thrustsWhen an INFANT becomes unresponsive, perform CPR and look in the mouth for the obstructing objectChest Compression Fraction (CCF)Chest Compression Fraction is the amount of time during a cardiac arrest event that high-quality chest compressions are performed. Improving CCF to achieve the 80% threshold has been shown to increase survival by 200% to 300%For adults in cardiac arrest who received CPR without an advanced airway, perform CPR with the goal of a chest compression fraction as high as possible, with target of at least 60%(5 compression sets X seconds) + (5 breath sets X seconds) = 5 compression sets X seconds / SUMThe American Heart Association strongly promotes knowledge and proficiency in all AHA courses and has developed instructional materials for this purpose. Use of these materials in an educational course does not represent course sponsorship by the AHA. Any fees charged for such a course, except for a portion of fees needed for AHA course materials, do not represent income to the AHA.

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