Chapter 4 the adjustment process and financial statements

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Chapter 4: The Adjustment Process and Financial Statements

The Trial Balance

1. What is a trial balance?

2. What type of errors may still occur after a trial balance is prepared even though debits equal credits?

3. Is the trial balance an external financial statement?

4. What is a contra account?

5. What is book value?

6. Why does an asset’s book value not equal the asset’s current market value?

Adjusting Entries

1. What are adjusting entries?

2. What accounts are never affected by adjusting entries?

3. What are deferred revenues?

4. What are deferred expenses?

5. What are accrued revenues?

6. What are accrued expenses?

7. State whether the following is a deferred revenue, deferred expense, accrued revenue, or accrued expense.

a. At year-end wages payable of $3,600 have not been recorded or paid.

b. Supplies for office use were purchased during the year for $500, and $100 of the office supplies remained on hand (unused) at year-end.

c. Interest of $250 on a note receivable was earned at year-end, although the collection of the interest is not due until the following year.

d. At year-end, service revenue of $2,000 was collected in cash but was not yet earned.

8. What is the formula for calculating interest?

9. What is straight-line depreciation?

10. What is the process for adjusting deferred revenues and expenses?

11. What is the process for adjusting accrued revenues and expenses?

12. For the following transactions give the adjusting entries required at year-end.

a. Collected $900 rent for the period December 1, 2001 to March 1, 2002, which was credited to Uneanred rent revenue on December 1, 2001.

b. Paid $2,400 for a two-year insurance premium on July 1, 2001; debited to Prepaid insurance.

c. Purchased a machine for $12,000 cash on January 1, 2001; estimated useful life of five years with a residual value of $2,000.

d. Received a $220 utility bill for electricity usage in December to be paid in January.

e. Owed wages to 10 employees who worked three days at $120 each per day at the end of December. The company will pay employees at the end of the first week of January.

f. On September 1, 2001, loaned $3,000 to an officer who will repay the loan in one year at an annual interest rate of 12%.

13. On April 1, 2001, Kantinka Company signed a $12,000, one-year, 10% note payable. At due date, April 1, 2002, the principal and interest will be paid. What amount of interest expense should be reported on the income statement for the year ended 2001?

14. At the end of 2004, Dallas Company made the following adjusting entry to record $10,000 accrued (unpaid) wages:

Wage Expense 10,000

Wages Payable 10,000

A payroll of $40,000 (including the $10,000 accrued wages) was paid during the first week of January 2005. What is the entry to record the payment of this payroll?

15. What effect would failure to make an adjusting entry to recognize service revenue receivable have on assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity?

16. At the beginning of 2000, Down Company had office supplies inventory of $400. During 2000, the company purchased office supplies amounting to $2,500 (paid for in cash and debited to office supplies inventory). At December 31, 2000 (end of the accounting year), a count of the office supplies on hand reflected $300. What is the necessary adjusting entry?

17. Ramstetter Inc. purchased a new building on January 1, 2000. The building was valued at $120,000 with a 40-year life and a zero salvage value. The company uses the straight-line depreciation method. How would the building appear in the property, plant, and equipment section of the December 31, 2001 balance sheet?

18. What is earnings per share?

Net Profit Margin

1. What is the net profit margin ratio?

2. What are net sales?

3. What does the net profit margin measure?

4. What does a rising net profit margin signal?

The Closing Process

1. What are permanent accounts?

2. What are temporary accounts?

3. What are closing entries?

4. What are the two purposes of closing entries?

5. How are accounts with credit balances, revenue accounts, closed?

6. How are accounts with debit balances, expense accounts, closed?

7. What is income summary?

8. What is the last step of the accounting information process cycle?

9. What is the post-closing trial balance?

10. At the end of 2007, the following data was taken from the accounts of Timberline Company:

Contributed Capital $200,000

Retained Earnings 1/1/2007 150,000

Total revenue earned during 2007 180,000

Total expenses incurred during 2007 190,000

Total cash collected during 2007 200,000

What are the 2007 closing entries?

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