Essential questions

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Framework: Essential Knowledge(*** denotes that the essential knowledge appears twice within this outline)Reconstruction UnitUSII.3aBasic provisions of the AmendmentsThe 13th Amendment bans slavery in the United States and any of its territoriesThe 14th Amendment grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees them equal protection under the lawThe 15th Amendment ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitudeThese three amendments guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.USII.3bReconstruction policies and problemsSouthern military leaders could not hold office.African Americans could hold public office.African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which also authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement.Northern soldiers supervised the South. The Freedman’s Bureau was established to aid former enslaved African Americans in the South.Southerners resented Northern “carpetbaggers,” who took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.Southern states adopted Black Codes to limit the economic and physical freedom of former slaves.End of Reconstruction Reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of a compromise over the outcome of the election of 1876.Federal troops were removed from the South.Rights that African Americans had gained were lost through “Jim Crow” laws.USII.3cAbraham Lincoln:Reconstruction plan calling for reconciliationPreservation of the Union was more important than punishing the SouthRobert E. Lee: Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fightBecame president of Washington College, which is now known as Washington and Lee UniversityFrederick Douglass:Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rightsWas a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for allUSII.4cRacial segregationBased upon raceDirected primarily against African Americans, but other groups also were kept segregated“Jim Crow” laws Passed to discriminate against African Americans Made discrimination practices legal in many communities and statesWere characterized by unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, govn’tWestern Expansion UnitUSII.2aPhysical features/climate of the Great PlainsFlatlands that rise gradually from east to westLand eroded by wind and waterLow rainfallFrequent dust stormsBecause of new technologies, people saw the Great Plains not as a “treeless wasteland” but as a vast area to be settledInventions/adaptationsBarbed wire Steel plowsDry farmingSod housesBeef cattle raisingWheat farmingWindmillsRailroadsUSII.4aReasons for increase westward expansionOpportunities for land ownershipTechnological advances, including the Transcontinental RailroadPossibility of obtaining wealth, created by the discovery of gold and silverDesire for adventureDesire for a new beginning for former enslaved African AmericansImpact on American IndiansOpposition by American Indians to westward expansion (Battle of Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull, Geronimo)Forced relocation from traditional lands to reservations (Chief Joseph, Nez Perce)Reduced population through warfare and disease (Battle of Wounded Knee)Assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes (reduction of buffalo population)Reduced their homelands through treaties that were brokenUSII.4bDiscrimination against immigrants- Chinese- IrishUSII.4c Racial segregationAmerican Indians were not considered citizens until 1924.Growth of Industry UnitUSII.2bTransportation of ResourcesMoving natural resources (copper and lead) to eastern factories Moving iron ore deposits to sites of steel mills (Pittsburgh)Transporting finished products to national marketsExamples of manufacturing areasTextile industry – New EnglandAutomobile industry – DetroitSteel industry – PittsburghUSII.4dInventions that contributed to great change and industrial growthElectric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (Thomas Edison)Telephone service (Alexander Graham Bell)Reasons for rise and prosperity of big businessNational markets created by transportation advancesCaptains of industry (John D. Rockefeller, oil; Andrew Carnegie, steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt, shipping and railroadsAdvertisingLower-cost productionFactors that resulted in growth of industryAccess to raw materials and energyAvailability of work force due to immigrationInventions Financial resourcesExamples of big businessRailroadsOilSteelPostwar changes in farm and city lifeMechanization (the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased production.Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.Industrialization provided new access to consumer goods (mail order).USII.4eNegative Effects of industrializationChild laborLow wages, long hoursUnsafe working conditionsRise of organized laborFormation of unions – Growth of American Federation of LaborStrikes – Aftermath of Homestead StrikeUSII.6aInvention of the airplane – The Wright BrothersUse of the assembly line*** Henry Ford, automobileRise of mechanizationWays electrification changed American life***Labor-saving products (washing machines, electric stoves, water pumps)Electric lightingEntertainment (radio)Improved communicationsImmigration UnitUSII.4bReasons for the increase in immigrationHope for better opportunitiesDesire for religious freedomEscape from oppressive governmentsDesire for adventureReasons why cities grew and developedSpecialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago)Immigration to America from other countriesMovement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements.Efforts to solve immigration problemsSettlement houses, such as Hull House founded by Jane AddamsPolitical machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (jobs, housing)Discrimination against immigrants*** ChineseIrishChallenges faced by citiesTenements and ghettosPolitical corruption (political machines)USII.9dChanging immigration patterns (Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans)***More people want to immigrate to the United States than are allowed by law***Progressive Reforms UnitUSII.4bEfforts to solve immigration problems***Settlement houses, such as Hull House founded by Jane AddamsPolitical machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (jobs, housing)Challenges faced by cities***Tenements and ghettosPolitical corruption (political machines)USII.4cAfrican American response Booker T. Washington – believed equality could be achieved through vocational education; accepted social separationW.E.B. Du Bois – believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African AmericansUSII.4eProgressive Movement workplace reformsImproved safety conditions Reduced work hoursPlaced restrictions on child laborWomen’s suffrage***Increased educational opportunitiesAttained voting rights - Women gained the right to vote with the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America- Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrageTemperance Movement ***Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcoholSupported 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beveragesSpanish American War UnitUS11.5a Reasons for the Spanish American WarProtection of American business interests in CubaAmerican support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from Spain Rising tensions between Spain and United States as a result of the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana HarborExaggerated news reports of events (Yellow Journalism)Results of the Spanish American WarThe United States emerged as a world power.Cuba gained independence from Spain.The United States gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. US11.5bThe Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:Asserted the United States’ right to interfere in the economic matters of other nations in the AmericasClaimed the United States’ right to exercise international police powerAdvocated Big Stick Diplomacy (building the Panama Canal)WWI UnitUSII.5c Reasons for US involvement in WWIInability to remain neutralGerman submarine warfare – sinking of LusitaniaUS economic and political ties to Great BritainThe Zimmermann TelegramMajor Allied PowersBritish EmpireFranceRussia SerbiaBelgiumUnited StatesCentral PowersGerman EmpireAustro-Hungarian EmpireBulgariaOttoman Empire US leadership as the war endedAt the end of WWI, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peace-keeping organizationThe US decided not to join the League of Nations because the United States Senate failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.1920’s UnitUS11.4eTemperance Movement ***Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcoholSupported 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beveragesUSII.6a Results of improved transportation brought by affordable automobilesGreater mobilityCreation of jobsGrowth of transportation – related industries (road construction, oil, steel, automobile)Movement to suburban areasUse of the assembly line***Henry Ford, automobileRise of mechanizationCommunication changesIncreased availability of telephones Development of the radio and broadcast industry Development of the moviesUSII.6b Prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture, transport, and sell alcoholic beveragesResults of ProhibitionSpeakeasies were created as places for people to drink alcoholic beveragesBootleggers made and smuggled alcohol illegally and promoted organized crimeRepealed by the 21st AmendmentGreat Migration north and westJobs for African Americans in the South were scarce and low paying.African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the southAfrican Americans moved to cities in the North and Midwest search of better employment opportunitiesAfrican Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North and MidwestUSII.6c Cultural climate of the 1920’s and 1930’sArt – Georgia O’Keeffe, an artist known for urban scenes and later paintings of the SouthwestLiterature – F. Scott Fitzgerald, a novelist who wrote about the Jazz Age of the 1920’s; John Steinbeck, a novelist who portrayed the strength of poor migrant workers during the 1930’sMusic – Aaron Copland and George Gershwin, composers who wrote uniquely American musicHarlem Renaissance:African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem revealed the freshness and variety of African American cultureArt – Jacob Lawrence, painter who chronicled the experiences of the Great Migration through artLiterature – Langston Hughes, poet who combined the experiences of African and American cultural rootsMusic – Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong, jazz composers; Bessie Smith, blues singerPopularity of these artists spread beyond Harlem to the rest of society.Great Depression UnitUS11.6dCauses of the Great DepressionPeople overspeculated on stocks, using borrowed money that they could not repay when stock prices crashedThe Federal Reserve failed to prevent the collapse of the banking systemHigh tariffs discouraged international tradeImpact on AmericansA large number of banks and businesses failedOne-fourth of workers were without jobsLarge numbers of people were hungry and homelessFarmers’ incomes fell to low levelsMajor features of the New DealSocial SecurityFederal work programsEnvironmental improvement programsFarm assistance programs Increased rights for laborWWII UnitUS11. 7aCauses of WWII Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from WWIWorldwide depressionHigh war debt owed by GermanyHigh inflationMassive unemploymentRise of FascismFascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism and, often, racism are emphasizedFascists dictators included Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Hideki Tojo (Japan)These dictators led the countries that became known as the Axis PowersThe Allies Democratic nations (the US, Great Britain, Canada) were known as the Allies. The Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany. Allied leaders included Franklin D. Roosevelt and later Harry S. Truman (US), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to direct involvementIsolationism (Great Depression, legacy of WWI)Economic aid to Allies Direct involvement in the warWar in the PacificRising tension developed between the US and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East AsiaOn December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the US at Pearl Harbor without warning.The US declared war on JapanGermany declared war on USUSII.7bMajor events and turning points of WWIIGermany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe. The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations.Germany invaded France, capturing Paris.Germany bombed London and the Battle of Britain began.The US gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean (Lend Lease).Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor Germany declared war on the US.The US declared war on Japan and Germany.The US was victorious over Japan in the Battle of Midway. This victory was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany at Stalingrad, marking the turning point of the war in Eastern Europe.American and Allied troops landed in Normandy, France, on D-Day to begin the liberation of Western Europe.The US dropped two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in 1945, forcing Japan to surrender and ending WWII.The HolocaustAnti-SemitismAryan supremacySystematic attempt to rid Europe of all JewsTactics -Boycott of Jewish stores -Threats -Segregation -Imprisonment and killing of Jews and others in concentration camps and death campsLiberation by Allied forces of Jews and others who survived in concentration campsUSII.7cAmerican involvement in WWII brought an end to the Great Depression. Factories and workers were needed to produce goods to win the war.Thousands of American women took jobs in defense plants during the war (Rosie the Riveter)Americans at home supported the war by conserving and rationing resources.The need for workers temporarily broke down some racial barriers (hiring in defense plants) although discrimination against African Americans continued.While many Japanese Americans served in the armed forces, others were treated with distrust and prejudice, and many were forced into internment camps.WWII Follow-upUSII.8aMuch of Europe was in ruins following WWII. Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany. The US felt it was in its best interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability.Rebuilding effortsThe US instituted George C. Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism. Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation. East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-govn’t, and became a strong ally of the US.Establishment of the United NationsThe United Nations was formed near the end of WWII to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.USII.8bReasons for rapid growth of American economy following WWII:With rationing of consumer goods over, business converted from production of war materials to consumer goodsAmericans purchased goods on creditThe workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned full time to family responsibilitiesLabor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salariesAs economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women entered the labor force in large numbersUSII.8dFactors leading to changing patterns in US society*** “The Baby Boom” which led to changing demographicsPolicies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities***G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to veteransThe Cold War UnitUSII.8cCold War: state of tension without actual fighting between the US and the Soviet Union which divided the world into two campsOrigins of the Cold WarDifferences in goals and ideologies between the US and the Soviet Union (the two superpowers) – the US was democratic and capitalist; the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communistThe Soviet Union’s domination over Eastern European countriesAmerican policy of containment (to stop the spread of communism) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus the Warsaw PactMajor conflicts in the post-World War II eraSouth Korea and the US resisted Chinese and North Korean aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate.The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred when the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba. The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a US blockade of Cuba.The US intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam (Domino theory). Americans were divided over whether the US should be involved militarily in Vietnam. The conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement in which US troops withdrew.Collapse of Communism in Europe Breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries Destruction of the Berlin WallCivil Rights UnitUSII.9aSome effects of segregation:Separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American studentsSeparate public facilities (restrooms, drinking fountains, restaurants)Social isolation of racesCivil Rights MovementOpposition to Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but equal”Brown v. Board of Education – desegregation of schoolsMartin Luther King, Jr. – passive resistance against segregated facilities; “I have a dream…” speechRosa Parks – Montgomery bus boycottOrganized protests, Freedom Riders, sit-ins, marchesExpansion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)Civil Rights Act of 1964Voting Rights Act of 1965USII.8dAfrican Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities***Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunitiesTruman desegregated the armed forcesCivil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minoritiesWomen’s Rights UnitUSII.4eWomen’s suffrage***Increased educational opportunitiesAttained voting rights - Women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States - Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrageUSII.8bReasons for rapid growth of American economy following WWII:***The workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned full time to family responsibilitiesAs economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women entered the labor force in large numbersUSII.8dEvolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, while increasingly working outside the home)***Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding human rights***USII.9aChanging role of women Workplace disadvantagesDiscrimination against women in hiring practicesLower wages for women than for men doing the same job Improved conditions National Organization for Women (NOW)Federal legislation to force colleges to give women equal athletic opportunitiesThe Equal Rights Amendment, despite its failure, and a focus on equal opportunity employment created a wider range of options and advancement for women in business and public service Late Twentieth Century (Miscellaneous)USII.8cNew ChallengesRole of US military intervention Environmental challengesGlobal issues, including trade, jobs, diseases, energyUSII.8dFactors leading to changing patterns in US societyStrong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products)Greater investment in education “The Baby Boom” which led to changing demographicsInterstate highway system Evolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, while increasingly working outside the home)***Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding human rights*** African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities*** Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunitiesG.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to veteransUSII.8eGlobalization is the linking of nations through trade, information, technologies, and communication.Globalization involves increased integration of different societies. Impact of globalization on American lifeImprovement of all communications (travel, telecommunications, Internet)Availability of a wide variety of foreign-made goods and servicesOutsourcing of jobsUSII.9b Industries benefiting from new technologiesAirline industry – jet engineAutomobile industry and interstate highway systemEntertainment and news media industries Exploration of spaceComputer IndustrySatellite systems, telecommunications (pagers, cell phones, television)InternetImpact of new technologies on American lifeIncreased domestic and international travel for business and pleasureGreater access to news and other informationCheaper and more convenient means of communicationGreater access to heating and air-conditioning improved the quality of life and encouraged population growth in certain areas of the countryDecreased regional variation, resulting from nationwide access to the same entertainment and information provided by national television and radio programming, Internet services, computer gamesUSII.9cScienceCharles Drew: Medicine (plasma)J. Robert Oppenheimer: Physics (Manhattan Project team)CultureFrank Lloyd Wright: ArchitectureMartha Graham: DanceAcademicsHenry Louis Gates: HistoryMaya Angelou: LiteratureEconomics Bill Gates: Computer technology (Microsoft)Ray Kroc: Franchising (McDonald’s)USII.9dForeign policyIncrease in terrorist activitiesConflicts in the Middle EastChanging relationships with nationsImmigrationChanging immigration patterns (Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans)***More people want to immigrate to the United States than are allowed by law***Global environmentPolicies to protect the environmentGlobal climate changeConservation of water and other natural resourcesOther issuesEnergy issues (dependence on foreign oil)World health issues (global pandemics)Geography UnitUSII.2c States may be grouped by region. Northeast: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Southeast: Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas Midwest: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North DakotaSouthwest: Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, ArizonaRocky Mountains: Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, IdahoPacific: Washington, Oregon, CaliforniaNoncontiguous: Alaska, HawaiiCities serve as centers of trade and have political, economic, and cultural significanceCities grouped by regions: _ Northeast: New York, Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia_ Southeast: Washington, D.C., Atlanta, New Orleans_ Midwest: Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit_ Southwest: San Antonio, Santa Fe_ Rocky Mountains (Western): Denver, Salt Lake City_ Pacific: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle_ Noncontiguous: Juneau, Honolulu

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