Genetic problems

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7/07 Genetic Problems

Problems involving one pair of genes

Problem Set IA

In rabbits, brown coat [B] is dominant over white [b] coat.

1. a) What is the phenotype of hybrid rabbit?

b) What is the genotype of a white rabbit?

c) What is the phenotype of a homozygous dominant rabbit?

d) What is the genotype of a heterozygous rabbit?

e) List the possible genotypes of a rabbit with a brown coat.

2. Write the possible gametes that can be produced for each of the following:

a) a homozygous dominant rabbit

b) a hybrid rabbit

c) a recessive rabbit

In pea plants, green pods (G) are dominant over yellow pods (g).

3. Write the F1 genotypes and genotypic ratio for the following cross: Gg x Gg

a) genotypes

b) genotypic ratio

4. State the phenotypes and phenotypic ratio for the following cross: gg x Gg

a) phenotypes

b) phenotypic ratio

Problem Set I B

1. In pea plants, purple flowers [P] are dominant over white flowers [p]. Cross two pea plants that are homozygous recessive for flower color. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring? Ratios?

2. In guinea pigs, black coat [B] is dominant over white coat [b]. Cross a homozygous dominant female to a heterozygous male. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring? Ratios?

3. In Holstein cattle, solid coat color [S] is dominant over spotted coat color [s]. Cross a heterozygous female to a homozygous recessive male. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring? Ratios?

4. In peas, smooth seed coat [S] is dominant over wrinkled seed coat [s]. Cross two heterozygous pea plants. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring? Ratios?

5. In certain insects, red eyes [R] are dominant over white yes [r]. If two red eyed insects are crossed and some of the offspring have white eyes, what has to be the genotypes of the two parent insects?

6. In watermelons, green [G] fruit is dominant over striped [g] fruit. The offspring of a particular cross were 23 green fruits and 24 striped fruits. ( hint: 23:24 is almost 1:1) What were the genotypes of the two parent watermelon plants?

7. In pea plants, tall [T] is dominant over short [t]. If the offspring of a particular cross were 3,066 tall plants and 998 short plants, what were the genotypes of the parent plants?

8. Tall peas are dominant over dwarf peas. What would be the phenotype and genotype of a plant that is heterozygous? If such a heterozygous plant was self-fertilized and produced 30 dwarf offspring, how many tall offspring would it produce?

9. Mating a red-eyed fly and a white-eyed fly yields all red-eyed offspring. If one of these red-eyed

offspring is mated with its white-eyed parent, and they produced 60 offspring, how many of these should be red-eyed?

10. Brown color in mice is dominant over albinism. In a given cross between a brown mouse

and an albino mouse, 6 of the offspring were brown and 5 albino. What was the genotype of the original brown parent?

11. A long-winged fruit fly mated with one having vestigial wings (a recessive characteristic )

produced 28 long-wing, and 23 vestigial offspring. What were the genotypes of the parents?

Of their long-winged offspring? Of the vestigial offspring?

12. Shepherd’s purse with triangular seed capsule is dominant over the spindle-shaped capsule.

If a homozygous triangular plant is pollinated from a heterozygous triangular, and 20 offspring are obtained from them, how many of these should have spindle-shaped capsules?

13. Starchy grain is dominant over sugary grain in corn. If, in a cross between these types, 58 of the progeny are sugary, how many of the progeny should be starchy?

14. A certain white-fruited squash, self-fertilized, produced some white and some yellow offspring. White is dominant. If there were 21 yellow, how many whites would be expected?

15. Short hair is dominant over long hair in the guinea pig. A short haired guinea pig, one of whose parents was long-haired, was mated with a long-haired animal. If blindfolded, you selected one of their litter form the cage, what is the chance you would get a long haired animal?

16. The offspring of a brown mouse and an albino are all brown. If the heterozygous brown mice are mated together and produce 80 offspring, how many of these should be albino? How could your tell which ones were heterozygous? How many of the brown ones should be heterozygous?

17. If an animal having the genotype Cc produced 100 eggs, how many eggs should have the c allele? How many have the C allele? How many have both the c and the C allele?

18. In squash, white fruit is dominant over yellow. From a certain cross between a white and a yellow-fruited plant, 54 white and 59 yellow offspring were obtained. What were the genotypes of the parents.

Problems involving two pairs of genes ( genes not linked)

Problem Set II A

Use the following information to answer questions 1 -3:

Tall (T) plants are dominant over short (t) plants

Green pods (G) and dominant over yellow (g) pods

1. a) Write the genotype for a tall pure bred plant with homozygous green pods.

b) Write the genotype for a heterozygous tall plant with yellow pods

c) What is the phenotype of a plant that is Ttgg?

2. a) What gametes could by produced by a TtGG plant?

b) What gametes could be produced by a TtGg plant?

c) What gametes could be produced by a ttGg plant

3) Set up a Punnett square for the following cross (Set up only, do not fill it in) TTGg x TtGg

Problem Set II B

1. In humans, brown eyes[B] are dominant over blue eyes[b] and curly hair [C] is dominant over straight hair [c]. If the father and mother are both homozygous dominant for both traits, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children?

2. In rabbits, black coat [B] is dominant over white coat [b] and short hair [S] is dominant over long hair [s]. If you cross a homozygous black, short haired buck to a white, long haired doe, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring?

3. In horses, black color [B] is dominant to chestnut [b] and a trotting gait [T] is dominant to a pacing gait [t]. If a homozygous black, pacer stallion is mated to a chestnut homozygous trotter mare, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?

4. In pea plants, green pods [G] are dominant over yellow pods [g] and tall plants [T] are dominant over short plants [t]. If a heterozygous green-podded tall plant is crossed to a homozygous green-podded, short plant, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the offspring?

5. In humans, brown eyes [B] are dominant over blue eyes [b] and curly hair [C] is dominant over straight hair [c]. Cross a heterozygous brown-eyed, straight haired man to a blue-eyed, heterozygous curly haired woman. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their children?

6. In watermelons, green fruits [G] are dominant over striped fruits [g] and short fruits [S] and dominant over long fruits [s]. If two heterozygous green, short-fruited plants are crossed, what is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?

7 In corn, tallness T is dominant over dwarfness. Green leaves are dominant over yellow leaves.

A tall green plant, heterozygous for both traits is crossed with a yellow tall plant that is heterozygous for height.

a) What are the parental genotypes?

b) What are the possible gametes from each parent?

c) What are the phenotypes and phenotypic ratio of the offspring?

d) Complete a Punnett square showing the cross.

Optional:

8.. In cattle, black is dominant over yellow, and hornless is dominant over horned. If several homozygous black horned cows are mated with homozygous yellow hornless bulls, what will be the phenotypes of their offspring? If these offspring are mated with one another, and in a number of such matings 9 yellow hornless animals are produced, how many black hornless ones would be expected? yellow horned?

9. If a homozygous red mule-footed pig (toes grown together) is mated with a homozygous black normal-toed pig, their offspring are black and mule-footed. If the F1 animals are crossed with red normal-toed ones, and produce 80 offspring, how many of these should be red and normal-toed?

Incomplete Dominance Problems

1. In shorthorn cattle, the alleles for color are red [R] and white [W]. Neither allele is dominant and heterozygous cattle are roan in color. Cross a roan bull with a white cow. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring? Ratios?

2. In certain Andalusian fowl, black birds are crossed to white birds to produce offspring that are intermediate in phenotype appearing a slate blue gray. Cross two “blue- gray” birds and give the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring. Ratios?

3. When a black mink is crossed to a white mink, all the offspring are silver. Cross a black mink to a silver mink. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?

Blood typing Problems

1. If a person with type AB blood marries a person with type O blood, what blood types are possible in their children?

2. If one parent is heterozygous for type A blood and the other is heterozygous for type B blood, what blood types are possible in their children?

3. If a woman of blood type A has a child of blood type O, what possible blood types may the father have?

4. Suppose a father of group A and a mother of group B have a child of group O, what groups are possible in their subsequent children?

5. A wealthy, elderly couple die together in an accident. Soon a man shows up to claim their fortune, contending that he is their only son who ran away from home when a boy. Other relatives dispute this claim. Hospital records show that the deceased couple were blood Types AB and O respectively. The claimant to the fortune was Type O. Do you think that the claimant was an impostor? Prove.

6. A woman in Rh-positive and both of her parents are Rh-positive. She marries a man who is Rh-negative. Is there any possibility that they may have any Rh-negative children?

Rh-positive is dominant to Rh-negative.

7. A woman sues a man for the support of her child. She has Type A blood, her child Type O, and the man Type B. Could the man be the father? Explain.

Further tests of these persons show that both the man and the woman are Rh-negative (recessive) while the child is Rh-positive (dominant). Would this information be of any value in the case? Explain.

Sex-linked (X linked recessive) Problems

1. Color blindness is due to a recessive, sex-linked gene. A color-blind woman marries a man with normal vision. What kind of children would be expected from such a union?

2. A woman with normal vision marries a man with normal vision and they have a color-blind son. Her husband dies and she marries a color-blind man. Show the types of children that might be expected from this second marriage and the proportion of each.

3. In man, muscular dystrophy is a condition in which the muscles waste away during early life, resulting in death in the early teens. It is due to a recessive sex-linked gene. A certain couple have five children ---three boys, ages one, three, and ten: and two girls, ages five and seven. The oldest boy shows the symptoms of this disease. You are their family physician and they come to you for advice. What would you tell them about the chances of their other children developing the disease?

Genetic Problem Answer Sheet

Set I A

1. a) brown coat

b) bb

c) brown coat

d) Bb

e) BB or Bb

2. a) B

b) B, b

c) b

3. a) GG, Gg, gg

b) 1 : 2 : 1

4. a) Green, yellow

b) 1: 1

Set I B

1. Genotype: pp 100%

Phenotype: white flowers 100%

2. Genotype: BB, Bb 50%, 50% or 1:1

Phenotype: black 100%

3. Genotype: Ss, ss 1:1

Phenotype: solid, spotted 1:1

4. Genotype: SS, Ss, ss 1:2:1

Phenotype: smooth and wrinkled 3:1

5. Genotype: Rr, Rr

6. Genotypes: Gg, gg

7.Genotypes: Tt, Tt

8. Phenotype: tall; Genotype: Tt; 90

9. 30

10. Pp

11. Ll x ll

Ll

ll

12 0

13. 58

14. 63

15. 50%

16. 20

can’t tell

40

17. 50

50

0

18. Ww x ww

Set IIA

1. a) TTGG

b) Ttgg

c) Tall with yellow pods

2. a) TG and tG

b) TG, Tg, tG, and tg

c) tG and tg

3.

TG Tg tG tg

| | | | | |

|TG | | | | |

| | | | | |

|Tg | | | | |

Set II B

1. Genotype: BBCC

Phenotype: brown eyes/curly hair

2. Genotype: BbSs

Phenotype: black coat/short hair

3. Genotype: BbTt

Phenotype: black/trotters

4. Phenotypic ratio: 1:1

5. Phenotypic ratio: 1:1:1:1

6. Phenotypic ratio: 9:3:3:1

7. Parental genotypes: TtGg x Ttgg

Possible gametes: TG, Tg, tG, tg Tg, tg

Punnett Square

TG Tg tG tg

| | | | | |

|Tg |TTGg |TTgg |TtGg |Ttgg |

| | | | | |

|tg |TtGg |Ttgg |ttGg |ttgg |

Phenotypes: Tall /green, Tall/yellow, Short/green, Short/yellow

Phenotypic ratio: 3 : 3 : 1 : 1

Optional

8. Black hornless

27

3

9. 20

Set III.

Incomplete Dominance

1. Genotype: RW, WW 1:1

Phenotype: roan, white 1:1

2. Genotype: BB, BW, WW

Phenotype: black, “blue”, white 1:2:1

3. Genotype: BB, BW

Phenotype: Black, silver

Blood Typing Problems

1. A or B

2. AB, B, A, O

3. A, B, or O

4. AB, A, B, O

5. yes, only possible blood types: A, B

6. yes, if the woman is heterozygous

7. A/B markers: yes, he could be the father. He must have genotype: Bi.

Rh marker: Impossible for him to be the father since neither he nor the mother have the Rh marker

X linked recessive Problems

1. Normal females, color blind males

2. girls: 50% normal, 50% color blind

boys: 50% normal, 50% color blind

3. The boys ages 1 and 3: 50% chance of developing the disease

The girls: will not develop the disease

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