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MICHAEL R. SMITH

Curriculum Vitae

Office of the Provost University of Texas at El Paso Admin 316 El Paso, TX 79968-0501 (915) 747-8868 Msmith4@utep.edu

EDUCATION

Ph.D., School of Justice Studies, Arizona State University, May 1996.

J.D., University of South Carolina School of Law, May 1993. Admitted to Practice, Virginia State Bar, 1998. United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, 1998.

B.S., Administration of Justice, Virginia Commonwealth University, August 1987.

PUBLICATIONS

Forthcoming: Petrocelli, M., Oberweiss, P., and Smith, M.R. (In Press). Assessing police attitudes

toward drugs and drug enforcement. American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Social Science Journal Articles: Kaminski, R.J., Engel, R.S., Rojek, J., Smith, M.R., and Alpert, G.P. (2013) A quantum of

force: The consequences of counting routine conducted energy device punctures as injuries. Justice Quarterly, . Engel, R.S., Smith, M.R., and Cullen, F. (2012). Race, place, and drug enforcement: Reconsidering the impact of citizen complaints and crime rates on drug arrests. Criminology and Public Policy, 11, 603-635.

Smith, M.R. & Hester, R. (2011). Arizona v. Gant and searches of automobiles incident to arrest: Analysis and recommendations for policy and practice. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 34, 265-284. .

MacDonald, J.M., Kaminski, R.J., & Smith, M.R. (2009). The effect of less-lethal weapons on injuries in police use of force events. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 22682274.

Smith, M.R. (2008). Toward a national use of force data collection system: One small (and focused) step is better than a giant leap. Criminology & Public Policy, 7, 619-627.

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Engel, R.S. & Smith, M.R. (2009). Perceptual distortion and reasonableness during police shootings: Law, legitimacy and future research. Criminology & Public Policy, 8, 141-151.

Rojek, J, & Smith, M.R. (2007). Law enforcement lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina Review of Policy Research, 24, 589-608.

Smith, M.R. & Alpert, G.P. (2007). Explaining police bias: A theory of social conditioning and illusory correlation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 1262-1283.

Smith, M.R., Kaminski, R.J., Rojek, J., Alpert, G.P., & Mathis, J. (2007). The impact of conducted energy devices and other types of force and resistance on officer and suspect injuries. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30, 423446.

Smith, M.R., Petrocelli, M., & Scheer, C. (2007). Excessive force, civil liability, and the taser in the nation's courts: Implications for law enforcement policy and practice. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30, 398-422.

Alpert, G.P., Dunham, R., & Smith, M.R. (2007). Investigating racial profiling by the MiamiDade Police Department: A multimethod approach. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(1), 25-56.

Smith, M.R., Makarios, M. & Alpert, G.P. (2006). Differential suspicion: Theory specification and gender effects in the traffic stop context. Justice Quarterly, 23, 271-295.

Alpert, G.P., Smith, M.R., & Dunham, R. (2004). Toward a better benchmark: Assessing the utility of not-at-fault traffic crash data in racial profiling research. Justice Research and Policy, 6, 44-69.

Parker, K.F., MacDonald, J., Alpert, G.P., Smith, M.R., & Piquero, A. (2004). A contextual study of racial profiling: Assessing the theoretical rationale for the study of racial profiling at the local level. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(7), 1-20.

Terrill, W., Alpert, G., Dunham, R., & Smith, M.R. (2003). A management tool for evaluating police use of force: An application of the force factor. Police Quarterly, 6, 150-171.

Petrocelli, M., Smith, M.R., & Piquero, A. (2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: An empirical analysis of police traffic stop data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 1-11.

Smith, M.R. & Petrocelli, M. (2002). The effectiveness of force used by police in making arrests. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 3, 201-215.

Smith, M.R. & Alpert, G. (2002). Searching for direction: Courts, social science, and the adjudication of racial profiling claims. Justice Quarterly, 19, 673-704.

Smith, M.R. & Petrocelli, M. (2001). Racial Profiling?: A multivariate analysis of police traffic stop data. Police Quarterly, 4, 4-27.

Smith, M.R. (2001). Police-led crackdowns and cleanups: An evaluation of a crime control initiative in richmond, virginia. Crime & Delinquency, 47, 60-83.

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Smith, M.R. & Alpert. G. (2000). Pepper Spray: A safe and reasonable response to suspect verbal resistance. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 23, 233-245.

Smith, M.R. (1999). Police Pursuits: The legal and policy implications of County of Sacramento v. Lewis. Police Quarterly, 2, 261-282.

Alpert, G. & Smith, M.R. (1999). Police use of force data: Where we are and where we should be going. Police Quarterly, 2, 57-78.

Smith, M.R. (1995). Integrating community policing and the use of force: Public education, involvement, and accountability. American Journal of Police, 13(4), 1-21.

Law Journal Articles: Smith, M.R. (2005). Depoliticizing racial profiling: Suggestions for the limited use and

management of race in police-decision-making. George Mason Civil Rights Law Journal, 15, 219-260.

Smith, M.R. (1998). Police use of deadly force: How courts and policy-makers have misapplied Tennessee v. Garner. The Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy, 7, 100121.

Smith, M.R. (1995). Law enforcement liability under section 1983. Criminal Law Bulletin, 31, 128-150.

Smith, M.R. & Alpert, G. (1993). Police and the americans with disabilities act: Who is being discriminated against? Criminal Law Bulletin, 29, 516-541.

Smith, M.R. (1993). Recent developments in the South Carolina unfair trade practices act. South Carolina Law Review, 44, 543-569.

Smith, M.R. (1992). Supreme court relaxes the favorable termination element of malicious prosecution claims. South Carolina Law Review, 44, 170-74.

Smith, M.R. (1992). Supreme court narrows statutory exemption under the South Carolina unfair trade practices act. South Carolina Law Review, 44, 174-78.

Monographs: Smith, M.R. (Rptr.). (1999). Guidelines on Mediation and the Unauthorized Practice of

Law. Alexandria, VA: State Justice Institute. (Principal researcher and author on a committee-produced monograph published by the Supreme Court of Virginia and the State Justice Institute).

Book Chapters and other Non-Refereed Publications: Smith, M.R. (2005). Equal protection and criminal Justice. In M. Miller & R. Wright (Eds.),

Encyclopedia of Criminology (pp. 509-513). New York: Routledge.

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Smith, M. (2003). Dispute resolution in the criminal justice system. In L. Moriarty (Ed.), Controversies in Victimology. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.

Petrocelli, M. & Smith, M.R. (2000). The implementation of a use of force study: Lessons learned for practitioners and researchers. Police Forum, 10(3), 1-3.

del Carmen, R. & Smith, M.R. (1997). The Judiciary: The arbitration of conflict. In D. Chang & M. Palmiotto (Eds.). Introduction to Criminal Justice: Theory and Practice. Wichita, KS: MidContinental Academic Press.

del Carmen, R. & Smith, M.R. (1997). Police, civil liability, and the law. In G. Alpert & R. Dunham (Eds.), Critical Issues in Policing (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Research & Technical Reports Alpert, G.P., Smith, M.R., Kaminski, R.J., Fridell, L.A., MacDonald, J., & Kubo, B. (2011).

NIJ Research in Brief: Police use of force, tasers and other less-lethal weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.

Smith, M.R. & Engel, R.S. (January 2008). Race, drugs, and policing in Seattle: A reexamination of the evidence. Columbia, SC: Authors.

Rojek, J., Kaminski, R.J., Smith, M.R., & Scheer, C. (September 2007). South Carolina law enforcement training survey: A national and state analysis. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Smith, M.R. & Rojek, J. (October 2006). Law enforcement lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Office of Research.

Smith, M.R. (August 2006). Use of force in the Richland County Sheriff's Department. Columbia, SC: Author.

Rojek, J., Smith, M.R., Kaminski, R.J., & Scheer, C. (July 2006). South Carolina gang survey, 2005. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Analysis Group, Inc. (Alpert, G.P., Becker, E., Gustafson, M.A., Meister, A.P., Smith, M.R., & Strombom, B.A.). (July 2006). Pedestrian and motor vehicle post-stop data analysis report. Los Angeles, CA: Author.

Alpert Group (Alpert, G.P., Smith, M.R., Dunham, R., & Piquero, A., & Parker, K.). (November 2004). Miami-Dade Police Department racial profiling study. Columbia, SC: Author.

Smith, M.R. (June 2000). The traffic stop practices of the Richmond,Virginia police department. Richmond, VA: Author.

Smith, M.R. (March 2000). Evaluation of the city of richmond's blitz to bloom initiative in highland park. Richmond, VA: Author.

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RESEARCH GRANTS & CONTRACTS

May 2007 ? May 2008. Principal investigator (with Robin Engel) on a research project funded by the City of Seattle to evaluate possible patterns of racial bias in Seattle Police drug arrests ($76,000).

May 2007 ? October 2007. Principal investigator (with Jeff Rojek) on "Assessing Violent Crime Patterns and Trends in Charleston and North Charleston," a research grant from the cities of Charleston and North Charleston, South Carolina to analyze violent crime patterns and trends in those cities over three years ($46,000).

May 2007 ? February 2008. Co-principal investigator (with Jeff Rojek) on "Assessing Gang and Youth Violence in the Columbia Area," a research grant from the City of Columbia to assess the nature and extent of the youth gang problem in Columbia and Richland County ($120,000).

January 2006 ? July 2008. Co-principal investigator (with Geoff Alpert) on "A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes," a research grant from the National Institute of Justice to study use of force in law enforcement agencies throughout the United States ($650,000).

January 2006 ? May 2006. Principal investigator (with Jeff Rojek) on a research grant from the Richland County, South Carolina Sheriff's Department to study victim satisfaction with sheriff's department services ($18,000).

September 2005 ? August 2006. Principal investigator (with Jeff Rojek) on a research grant from the University of South Carolina to study the impact of Hurricane Katrina on local law enforcement ($12,000).

April 2004 ? July 2006. Co-principal investigator (with Analysis Group) on a research project funded by the City of Los Angeles to study biased policing in the LAPD ($770,000).

October 2002 ? May 2004. Principal investigator on a Spokane, Washington Police Department project to develop a racial profiling data collection instrument and methodology ($30,000).

November 2000 ? November 2004. Co-principal investigator (with the Alpert Group) on a research project funded by Miami-Dade County, Florida to study racial profiling by the Miami-Dade Police Department ($300,000).

January 2000 ? June 2000. Principal investigator on a Richmond Police Departmentsponsored-project to study racial profiling ($10,500).

September 1998 ? July 1999. Principal researcher/author on a State Justice Institute grant to study the issue of mediation and the unauthorized practice of law ($25,000).

January 1997 ? December 2000. Co-principal investigator (with Kenneth Adams) on "Perceptions of Police Accountability in the Citizen Complaint Process," a research project

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sponsored by the National Institute of Justice that examines various dimensions and perceptions of the citizen complaint process within five police agencies ($300,000).

June 1997 ? August 1997. Principal investigator on a project sponsored by Sam Houston State University to conduct a national survey of police non-lethal force policies ($5,000).

June 1995 ? August 1995. Principal investigator on a project sponsored by Arizona State University to study the justice decision-making norms of police officers in Phoenix, Arizona ($5,000).

PAPER PRESENTATIONS

MacDonald, J.M., Kaminski, R.J., & Smith, M.R. (2008). "Injury Outcomes from Police Use of Force: A Multilevel Analysis of Less-Lethal Weapons." Presented at the 2008 meeting of the American Society of Criminology. St. Louis, Missouri.

Scheer, C., Rojek, J., & Smith, M. (2006). "Results from the 2005 South Carolina Gang Survey." Presented at the 2006 meeting of the Southern Criminal Justice Association, Charleston, South Carolina.

Smith, M., Petrocelli, M., & Eyres, J. (2006). "A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Racial Profiling." Presented at the 2006 meeting of the Western Social Science Association, Phoenix, Arizona.

Smith, M., Makarios, M., & Alpert, G. (2004). "Differential Suspicion: Theory Specification and Gender Effects in the Traffic Stop Context." Presented at the 2004 meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nashville, Tennessee.

Smith, M. & Petrocelli, M. (2002). "Measures of Learning and Crime: Theoretical and Empirical Links." Presented at the 2002 meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, Illinois.

Smith, M. & Alpert, G. (2002). "Searching for Direction: Courts, Social Science and the Adjudication of Racial Profiling Claims." Presented at the 2002 meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Anaheim, California.

Petrocelli, M., Smith, M., & Piquero, A. (2001). "Conflict Theory and Racial Profiling: An Empirical Analysis of Police Traffic Stop Data." Presented at the 2001 meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Washington, D.C.

Smith, M. (2000). "Racial Profiling and the Police: A Multivariate Analysis of Traffic Stop Data from Richmond, Virginia." Presented at the 2000 meeting of the Southern Criminal Justice Association, Charleston, South Carolina.

Smith, M. (2000). "Beyond Official Measures: Police Crackdowns and Community Perceptions." Presented at the 2000 meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, New Orleans, Louisiana.

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