Pdf national business education association national standards

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education

ACCOUNTING

I. THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION Achievement Standard: Understand the role that accountants play in business and society. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? describe the current and historical regulatory environment of the accounting profession (identify the major-policy setting bodies in the accounting profession and explain their role) ? describe how current events impact the accounting profession ? explain the need for a code of ethics in accounting and the ethical responsibilities required of accountants ? explain how accounting information is used to allocate resources in the business and personal decision-making process

Achievement Standard: Describe the career opportunities in the accounting profession. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? identify student and professional accounting organizations and associations ? identify professional designations and certifications in the accounting profession ? describe the educational requirements for various careers, professional designations,

and certifications in the accounting profession ? describe the skills and competencies needed to be successful in the accounting

profession ? describe the areas of specialization within the accounting profession and careers that

require a knowledge of accounting

Achievement Standard: Demonstrate the skills and competencies required to be successful in the accounting profession and/or in an accounting-related career. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? deliver a speech and make a presentation ? perform research and communicate in writing the results of the research ? demonstrate ethical decision-making skills and conduct in a business scenario ? apply analytical and critical decision-making skills ? identify and use information technology productively ? exhibit leadership skills ? demonstrate the ability to work within a team concept

II. FINANCIAL REPORTS Achievement Standard: Develop an understanding and working knowledge of an annual report and financial statements. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? identify sources for obtaining financial reports ? describe the users and uses of financial information ? identify the sections in an annual report and the purpose of each section ? explain the role of management and the auditor in preparing and issuing an annual

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education

report ? identify and explain the types of audit opinions ? explain the role of accounting and regulatory organizations in relation to financial

reports ? describe the information provided in each financial statement and how the statements

articulate with each other ? describe the relationship between assets, liabilities, and equity on the balance sheet ? identify and explain the classifications within assets, liabilities, and equity ? identify the different formats of an income statement ? identify the classifications in an income statement and explain their relationship to

each other (revenue, expense, gains, losses) ? describe changes in the ownership structure using the statement of equity ? explain how and why the conceptual framework of accounting and generally accepted

accounting principles provide guidance and structure for preparing financial statements ? describe the different forms of business ownership and the advantages and disadvantages of each form ? explain how the different forms of business ownership are reported in the financial statements ? identify the different types of business operations ? explain how the different types of business operations are reflected in the financial statements Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectation ? identify and explain the business activities reported in a statement of cash flows (operating, investing, financing) Level 4 Performance Expectations ? define comprehensive income and describe its relationship to operating results ? describe how disclosure requirements impact financial reporting

III. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Achievement Standard: Assess the financial condition and operating results of a company and analyze and interpret financial statements and information to make informed business decisions. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? discuss the information that can be obtained from analyzing financial statements ? recognize the primary areas of analysis (trend analysis, profitability, liquidity, capital structure) and explain the information that can be obtained from each type of analysis ? perform a horizontal and vertical analysis of the income statement and balance sheet ? assess profitability by calculating and interpreting financial ratios ? assess liquidity and solvency by calculating financial ratios ? compare and contrast debt and equity financing and explain the impact on the financial statements ? assess capital structure by calculating and interpreting financial ratios ? research industry averages and explain their use in assessing the financial condition, operating results, profitability, liquidity, and capital structure ? apply information technology to conduct financial analysis

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education

? identify and explain common methods for manipulating financial statements and financial ratios

? describe the ethical and legal implications resulting from the manipulation of financial statements and financial ratios

Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectations ? use the statement of cash flow to analyze business activities (operating, investing,

financing) ? analyze cash flow from operating activities to assess profitability and liquidity

IV. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES Achievement Standard: Identify and describe generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), explain how the application of GAAP impacts the recording of financial transactions, and the preparation of financial statements. A. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR FINANCIAL REPORTING Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? describe and explain the conceptual framework of accounting and generally accepted accounting principles and assumptions ? define assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, expenses, gains, and losses ? distinguish between the accrual basis of accounting and the cash basis of accounting and discuss the impact each has on the financial statements B. ASSETS Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? explain the accounting methods used to determine the value of accounts receivable to be reported on the balance sheet and describe the effect on the income statement ? record transactions for accounts receivable, including uncollectible accounts, write-offs, and recoveries ? explain the difference between the periodic and perpetual inventory methods ? determine the cost of inventory for merchandising and manufacturing businesses and apply appropriate valuation methods ? identify and describe the cost flow assumptions for inventory and explain the impact on the balance sheet and income statement ? describe the criteria used to distinguish between capital expenditures and revenue expenditures ? determine the costs of property, plant and equipment, natural resources, and intangible assets ? explain the purpose of cost allocation ? identify, calculate, and record depreciation, depletion, and amortization and explain the impact on the financial statements ? determine the impact on the financial statements when assets are sold, disposed, or rendered obsolete Level 4 Performance Expectation ? describe the methods and criteria used to account for investments and their impact on the financial statements C. LIABILITIES Level 3 Performance Expectations

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education

? record transactions for accounts payable and other short-term debt ? determine the initial valuation of long-term debt instruments and their impact on

the financial statements ? record transactions for long-term debt instruments Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectation ? calculate the cost of borrowed funds and determine the impact on the financial

statements Level 4 Performance Expectation ? identify liabilities categorized as other long-term obligations, such as deferred

income tax liability and post-retirement benefits D. EQUITY

Level 3 Performance Expectations ? explain how operating results, capital contributions, and distribution of earnings

affect equity for the various types of ownership structures ? identify and describe the different classes of stock and explain the rights afforded

each class of stock ? record equity-related transactions Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectations ? explain how the acquisition and sale of a company's own stock affects the

financial statements ? differentiate between stock splits and stock dividends and explain how each

affects equity Level 4 Performance Expectation ? explain how other comprehensive income affects equity E. REVENUE Level 3-4 Performance Expectations ? describe the criteria used to determine revenue recognition ? record revenue-related transactions F. EXPENSE Level 3--4 Performance Expectations ? describe the criteria used to determine expense recognition ? record expense-related transactions G. GAINS AND LOSSES Level 3-4 Performance Expectations ? distinguish between revenue and gains ? distinguish between expenses and losses ? record transactions resulting in gains and losses

V. ACCOUNTING PROCESS Achievement Standard: Complete the steps in the accounting cycle in order to prepare the financial statements. Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations: ? describe the purpose of the accounting system ? describe the purpose of journals and ledgers and their relationship ? describe the impact of technology on the accounting process ? identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of different types of

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education

accounting systems ? differentiate between accounting and bookkeeping ? analyze and describe how business transactions impact the accounting equation ? apply the double-entry system of accounting to record business transactions and

prepare a trial balance ? explain the need for adjusting entries and record adjusting entries ? explain the purposes of the closing process and record closing entries ? prepare the financial statements for the different types of business operations and

ownership structures ? describe the relationship between the closing process, the financial statements, and

the post-closing trial balance

VI. INTERPRETATION AND USE OF DATA Achievement Standard: Use planning and control principles to evaluate the performance of an organization and apply differential analysis and present-value concepts to make decisions. A. PLANNING AND CONTROL Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectations ? identify and apply internal control procedures used to safeguard assets and ensure the integrity of the accounting information system ? identify and apply appropriate information technology to the accounting system ? explain how to use activity-based costing and why it is used Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectations ? explain and compare the behavior of fixed, variable, and mixed costs ? apply cost-volume-profit and contribution margin analyses in planning operations ? prepare a budget for planning purposes Level 4 Performance Expectations ? apply variable and absorption costing concepts to analyze profitability ? prepare master and flexible budgets and use them to evaluate performance ? evaluate company performance by applying standard costing and variance analysis ? apply responsibility accounting concepts to evaluate cost, profit, and investment centers ? develop a plan for activity-based costing for a manufacturing business B. DECISION MAKING Level 3 - 4 Performance Expectation ? describe how accounting information facilitates management decision-making Level 3*- 4 Performance Expectation ? apply differential analysis to make the following types of decisions: make or buy a product; lease or buy an asset; discontinue a department, plant) or product; offer discounted prices on special orders; replace or repair equipment Level 4 Performance Expectation ? apply present-value concepts to evaluate capital investment opportunities

VII. COMPLIANCE A. PERSONAL FINANCE

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National Business Education Association National Standards for Business Education Achievement Standard: Develop a working knowledge of individual income tax procedures and requirements to comply with tax laws. Level 3--4 Performance Expectation ? describe the history and purpose of tax law in the United States and the process by which tax laws are created ? describe the composition of taxable income and calculate income tax ? complete the applicable individual income tax forms ? identify discuss, and apply strategies for minimizing taxable income ? distinguish between tax avoidance and tax evasion B. FINANCIAL REPORTING Achievement Standard: Distinguish between generally accepted accounting principles and income tax law. Level 3--4 Performance Expectation ? explain why income for financial reporting and taxable income are calculated differently Levels 3*~4 Performance Expectation ? identify permanent and temporary difference in net income and taxable income Level 4 Performance Expectation ? calculate permanent and temporary differences in net income and taxable income C. PAYROLL Achievement Standard: Apply appropriate accounting practices to payroll. Level 3--4 Performance Expectations ? calculate net pay ? calculate employer's payroll taxes ? prepare payroll reports

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