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Insurance Information Institute Background on: Compulsory Auto/Uninsured Motorists

Automobile Financial Responsibility Laws by State

(As of January 2018)

State

Insurance required (1)

AL

BI & PD Liab

AK

BI & PD Liab

AZ

BI & PD Liab

AR

BI & PD Liab, PIP

CA

BI & PD Liab

CO

BI & PD Liab

CT

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

DE

BI & PD Liab, PIP

DC

BI & PD Liab, UM

FL

PD Liab, PIP

GA

BI & PD Liab

HI

BI & PD Liab, PIP

ID

BI & PD Liab

IL

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

IN

BI & PD Liab

IA

BI & PD Liab

KS

BI & PD Liab, PIP

KY

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

LA

BI & PD Liab

ME

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM, Medpay

MD

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

MA

BI & PD Liab, PIP

MI

BI & PD Liab, PIP

MN

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

MS

BI & PD Liab

MO

BI & PD Liab, UM

MT

BI & PD Liab

NE

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

NV

BI & PD Liab

NH

FR only

NJ

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

NM

BI & PD Liab

NY

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

Minimum liability limits (2) 25/50/25 50/100/25 15/30/10 25/50/25 15/30/5 (3) 25/50/15 25/50/20* 25/50/10 25/50/10 10/20/10 (4) 25/50/25 20/40/10 25/50/15 25/50/20 25/50/25* 20/40/15 25/50/25 25/50/25 (4)* 15/30/25 50/100/25 (5) 30/60/15 20/40/5 20/40/10 30/60/10 25/50/25 25/50/20 25/50/20 25/50/25 25/50/20** 25/50/25 15/30/5 (6) 25/50/10 25/50/10 (7)

NC

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

ND

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

OH

BI & PD Liab

OK

BI & PD Liab

OR

BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM

PA

BI & PD Liab, PIP

RI

BI & PD Liab

SC

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

SD

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

TN

BI & PD Liab

TX

BI & PD Liab, PIP

UT

BI & PD Liab, PIP

VT

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

VA

BI & PD Liab (9), UM, UIM

WA

BI & PD Liab

WV

BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM

WI

BI & PD Liab, UM, Medpay

WY

BI & PD Liab

30/60/25 25/50/25 25/50/25 25/50/25 25/50/20 15/30/5 25/50/25 25/50/25 25/50/25 25/50/15 (4) 30/60/25 25/65/15 (4) 25/50/10 25/50/20 25/50/10 25/50/25 25/50/10 25/50/20

1) Compulsory Coverages: BI Liab=Bodily injury liability PD Liab=Property damage liability UM=Uninsured motorist PD=Physical damage Med=First party (policyholder) medical expenses UIM=Underinsured motorist PIP=Personal Injury Protection. Mandatory in no-fault states. Includes medical, rehabilitation, loss of earnings and funeral expenses. In some states PIP includes essential services such as child care. FR=Financial responsibility only. Insurance not compulsory.

(2) The first two numbers refer to bodily injury liability limits and the third number to property damage liability. For example, 20/40/10 means coverage up to $40,000 for all persons injured in an accident, subject to a limit of $20,000 for one individual, and $10,000 coverage for property damage. (3) Low-cost policy limits for low-income drivers in the California Automobile Assigned Risk Plan are 10/20/3. (4) Instead of policy limits, policyholders can satisfy the requirement with a combined single limit policy. Amounts vary by state. (5) In addition, policyholders must also have coverage for medical payments. Amounts vary by state. (6) Basic policy (optional) limits are 10/10/5. Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage not available under the basic policy but uninsured motorist coverage is required under the standard policy. Special Automobile Insurance Policy available for certain drivers which only covers emergency treatment and a $10,000 death benefit. (7) In addition, policyholders must have 50/100 for wrongful death coverage. (8) UIM Mandatory in policies with UM limits exceeding certain limits. Amounts vary by state. (9) Compulsory to buy insurance or pay an Uninsured Motorists Vehicle (UMV) fee to the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

*Effective January 1, 2019. **Effective July 1, 2018.

Source: Property Casualty Insurers Association of America; state departments of insurance and motor vehicles.

Estimated Percentage of Uninsured Motorists by State, 2015 (1)

State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware D.C. Florida (3) Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri

Uninsured 18.4% 15.4 12.0 16.6 15.2 13.3 9.4 11.4 15.6 26.7 12.0 10.6 8.2 13.7 16.7 8.7 7.2 11.5 13.0 4.5 12.4 6.2 20.3 11.5 23.7 14.0

Rank (2) 6 11 24 9 12 19 36 28 10 1 25 30 40 18 8 38 44 26 20 51 23 49 4 27 2 17

State Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Uninsured 9.9% 6.8 10.6 9.9 14.9 20.8 6.1 6.5 6.8 12.4 10.5 12.7 7.6 15.2 9.4 7.7 20.0 14.1 8.2 6.8 9.9 17.4 10.1 14.3 7.8

Rank (2) 33 46 29 35 14 3 50 48 45 22 31 21 43 13 37 42 5 16 39 47 34 7 32 15 41

(1) Percentage of uninsured drivers, as measured by the ratio of uninsured motorists (UM) claims to bodily injury (BI) claim frequencies. (2) Rank calculated from unrounded data. (3) In Florida, compulsory auto laws apply to personal injury protection (PIP) and physical damage, but not to third-party bodily injury coverage.

Source: Insurance Research Council.

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