The hillsborough stadium disaster

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HOME OFFICE

THE HILLSBOROUGH STADIUM DISASTER

15 APRIL 1989

INQUIRY BY THE RT HON LORD JUSTICE TAYLOR

Cm 765

INTERIM REPORT

Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department

by Command oj'Her Majesty August 1989

LONDON HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

HOME OFFICE

THE HILLSBOROUGH STADIUM DISASTER

15 APRIL 1989

INQUIRY BY THE RT HON LORD JUSTICE TAYLOR

Cm 765

INTERIM REPORT

Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department

by Command of Her Majesty August 1989

LONDON HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

PART I - WHAT HAPPENED AT HILLSBOROUGH?

CHAPTER 1 - THE GROUND AND PRE-MATCH ARRANGEMENTS

Fixing The Venue The Ground The Turnstiles Travel to the Ground Allocation of Places and Tickets Access from Leppings Lane Inside the Leppings Lane Turnstiles Policing Arrangements Sheffield Wednesday's Arrangements Police Communications

CHAPTER 2-15 APRIL: THE BUILD UP TO 2.30 pm Early Arrivals Public Houses The Gathering Crowd

CHAPTER 3 - THE CRISIS AT THE TURNSTILES "Open the Gates"

CHAPTER 4-THE DISASTER

CHAPTER 5-THE AFTERMATH Rescue Attempts First Aid In the Control Room No Information Misinformation Public Announcements Fire Brigade South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service (SYMAS) Gymnasium The Dead and the Injured

CHAPTER 6 - SPECIFIC INCIDENTS

PART II - WHY DID IT HAPPEN?

CHAPTER 7 - THE LAYOUT AT THE LEPPINGS LANE END The History The 1981 Semi-final Three Pens The 198 5 Changes New Radial Fences Barriers The Turnstiles and Concourse Barrier 144 Effects of the Layout

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4 21 22 29 33 3 5 37 40 47 48 49

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21 119 123 125 127 128 129 130 133 134

CHAPTER 8 - LACK OF FIXED CAPACITIES FOR THE PENS Departures from the Green Guide Safety Certificate Why was the Safety Certificate not Amended? The City Council Summary

CHAPTER 9 - LACK OF EFFECTIVE MONITORING OF THE TERRACES Who should Monitor the Terraces? The Interim Popplewell Report The Final Popplewell Report Arrangements at Hillsborough Case for the South Yorkshire Police Harris -v- Sheffield United Football Club Limited Police Practice at the Leppings Lane End "Find Their Own Level" When is an Area "Full"? Fear ofHooliganism Summary

CHAPTER 10 - THE BUILD-UP AT THE TURNSTILES The Physical Layout The Number ofTurnstiles The "Late" Arrival of Liverpool Fans Traffic Delays Fine Weather and Drinking Was Drunkenness a Major Factor in the Crisis at the Turnstiles? Reduced Efficiency of the Turnstiles Were Fans Without Tickets a Major Factor in the Build-Up? The "Conspiracy" Theory Liverpool Supporters at Away Matches No Conspiracy The Police Operation at Leppings Lane Previous Experience Policing in 1988 Police Intelligence in Advance Police Intelligence on the Day Mr Marshall and Mr Greenwood Control Lost Postponement of Kick-off Summary

CHAPTER 11 - THE BLUNDER ON OPENING THE GATES

CHAPTER 12 - THE BARRIERS IN PEN 3 Barrier 144 When did Barrier 124a Fail? Dr Eastwood's Testing of the Barriers Corrosion Causation

CHAPTER 13 - THE CRUSHING NOT RECOGNISED Observation from Control Room Officers on the Track

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