Tnc pi assembly instructions operating tips

Docx File 691.33 KByte,



209870TNC-Pi Assembly Instructions & Operating TipsBy John Hansen, W2FSPortions byJohn Wiseman, G8BPQ – Linux configurationJim Whiteside, M0HPJ – XastirPaul Fischer, KC9RGZ – Headless iGateDocument editing support byEd Slingland, N2WDWebsite TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc370757114 \h 3Assembly Instructions PAGEREF _Toc370757115 \h 4Parts List PAGEREF _Toc370757116 \h 4Assembly PAGEREF _Toc370757117 \h 6Parts Layout PAGEREF _Toc370757118 \h 11Connecting the Radio PAGEREF _Toc370757119 \h 12Adjust transmit audio output PAGEREF _Toc370757120 \h 13Set the transmit delay PAGEREF _Toc370757121 \h 13Configuring the Raspberry Pi PAGEREF _Toc370757122 \h 13Keyboard to Keyboard Connections PAGEREF _Toc370757123 \h 15Support PAGEREF _Toc370757124 \h 16Application Notes PAGEREF _Toc370757125 \h 16Using Xastir PAGEREF _Toc370757126 \h 16Update the package list PAGEREF _Toc370757127 \h 17Then install Xastir PAGEREF _Toc370757128 \h 17Kill kissattach PAGEREF _Toc370757129 \h 17Start Xastir PAGEREF _Toc370757130 \h 17Running Xastir PAGEREF _Toc370757131 \h 18More information PAGEREF _Toc370757132 \h 18Configuring TNC-Pi for Use with the I2C Protocol PAGEREF _Toc370757133 \h 18Setup PAGEREF _Toc370757134 \h 18Get and set parameters PAGEREF _Toc370757135 \h 19Running Applications other than LinBPQ with TNC-Pi in I2C mode. PAGEREF _Toc370757136 \h 20Steps to create an APRS receive-only igate using the Raspberry Pi and TNC-Pi PAGEREF _Toc370757137 \h 21Equipment needed PAGEREF _Toc370757138 \h 21Instructions PAGEREF _Toc370757139 \h 21IntroductionThank you for purchasing a TNC-Pi: TNC-X for Raspberry Pi or TNC-Pi 2. Figure 1: Two TNC-Pi’s stacked on one Raspberry PiFigure 2: TNC-Pi mounted on a Raspberry Pi14093831976755Figure 3: TNC-Pi 2 mounted on a Raspberry Pi 2.0Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3: TNC-Pi 2 mounted on a Raspberry Pi 2.204279522479000Assembly InstructionsParts ListYour kit should come with the parts listed in the table below. You can use the two columns of checkboxes to track your progress. As you inventory your parts, put a checkmark in the first column. Once you’ve installed a part, put a checkmark in the second column.InventoriedInstalledDesignationDescriptionNotesC1, C2, C4, C5, C6, C11, C1410 ?uf electrolyticPolarizedC2, C4, C5, C6, C11, C14, C15, C21 0.1 ?uf monocapC7, C8 0.01 ?uf 2.5%Red and yellow or grey; if grey marked 10 n FC9, C1018 pf ceramic diskC12, C1322 pf ceramic diskC3100 pf ceramic diskR1, R2, R3100K resistor Brown, black, yellowR4, R17, R19,1K resistor Brown, black, redR5, R11, R14, R16, R1810K resistorBrown, black, orangeR824.9K resistor Red, yellow, white, red, brownR99.31K resistor White, orange, brown, brown, brownR1018.7K resistorBrown, grey, purple, red, brownR6, R710K trimmer potentiometerOrange or BlueX13.57 MHz crystalX220.00 MHz crystalD4Red LED (PTT)PolarizedD5Yellow LED (DCD)PolarizedQ1PN2222 transistor3 pin, flat side (don’t confuse with U1)U1MCP1700-33 or MCP1700-30 Regulator3 pin, flat sideU2CML MX-614 Modem 16 pin ICU3PIC16F1847 microcontroller18 pin ICU4MCP6023 Op Amp 8 pin ICU523K640 Memory 8 pin ICIC SocketsFor U2, U3, U4, U5One 16-pin, one 18-pin and two 8-pin socketsJP3, JP4 2-pin headerNot included in newer kitsCombined into one 2x2 pin header2 x 13 extra long header2 x 20 in TNC-Pi 29 Pin D-Sub connectorPrinted Circuit Board2 shorting jumpersNot included in newer kitsAssemblyNote: John McDonough has published a number of high quality photos of various stages in the assembly process. See by installing the parts that lie flat on the board. This includes:all of the 0.1uf monocaps and all of the resistors except for R6 and R7. R10 and R11 have pads that are rather close together. Be careful that you do not accidently create a solder bridge between them. Note that all of the components except for the 26 ( or 40 in TNC-Pi 2) pin header are installed on the side of the board with the silk screen. Next install the two crystals. Ensure that the 20 MHz crystal is the one nearest the 18 pin IC. Next install the IC sockets. Ensure that the notch on the socket lines up with the notch on the IC outline on the PC board. Do not plug the chips into the sockets at this point.Next install the rest of the capacitors.With C1, make sure that the longer lead is placed in the hole marked with a +.Next install the two potentiometers (R6 and R7). You may find these to be a bit of a tight fit. If so, take a pair of needle nose pliers and flatten the leads before inserting them into the board.Next install the two LEDs. Ensure the shorter leads on the LEDs go through the holes closest to the flat side of the LED outline.The LEDs can be installed with bent legs so the LEDs point toward the front of the board. This makes them easier to see when TNC-Pis are stacked one on top of the other.Install the transistor.Ensure you are installing the transistor rather than the voltage regulator… they look a lot alike. Now install the voltage regulator. It goes in the three holes above C1. Install it so that the flat side of the regulator faces away from U3.Now install the 9 pin D-Sub connector. Ensure that you push it all the way in so that it is flush against the board. In addition to soldering the pins, you’ll gain mechanical stability by soldering the pins that go into the large round holes on the sides of the connector. Note: The D-Sub connector is optional. You can install the Radio header to connect your radio to the TNC-Pi instead. See the section, REF _Ref368851055 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Connecting the Radio, for more information.Solder in the 2 x13 header. With the TNC-Pi 2 kit this is a 2 x 20 header. This part is somewhat tricky. It is the only part that is installed through the bottom of the board. Start by installing this jumper on your Raspberry Pi and then Lower the TNC-Pi board onto the connector so that the body of the connector is on the BOTTOM of the TNC-Pi board. Now you’ll need to solder the board about a half millimeter from all the way down in order to prevent the board from bumping into the USB connector on the Pi. It is not necessary to solder all of the pins. You should at least solder the 4 pins in the corners (for stability) and the first five pins on each row (pins 1 – 10).Your best bet is to carefully trim the solder leads on the part of the TNC-Pi board that will be on the USB connector side of the Pi to get as much clearance as possible. You might also want to put a piece of insulating tape on top of the USB connector just to be on the safe side. You can then solder the pins that come through the top of the board. These pins will allow you to stack a second TNC-Pi on top of the first one if you choose to do so. Now install the 2 x 2 jumper (JP3 and JP4). If your board has a JP7 location, also take a short piece of wire and solder it in here to make a permanent jumper. Note: If you are building a TNC-Pi 2, none of these jumpers are needed or included in the kit. If you are building a newer kit from the original version JP3 and JP4 will also be missing, but you may need to put a wire across JP7.I’ve included 2 4-40 screws and a 5/8” spacer. If you have one of the Raspberry Pi Rev. B and the original TNC-Pi kit, or if you have the Rev. B+ or Pi 2 and the TNC-Pi 2 kit, you can use this to provide some additional mechanical stability by putting it between the hole in the Pi and the hole in the TNC-Pi. If you have a Pi B+ board and the original TNC-Pi kit, these parts are not needed. There will be plenty of mechanical support from the extra USB jacks on the Pi board, but you will want to use insulating tape on these jacks to keep them from shorting the TNC board. If you are stacking 2 or more TNC’s you might also find it preferable to use a spacer that is a male to female, rather than female to female. These male to female spacers are available on the TNC-Pi website. Now install jumpers at JP4 and JP3. They should be installed so they are parallel to the body of the 2x13 pin connector. If you are building a TNC-Pi 2 or newer original TNC-Pi, none of these jumpers are needed or included in the kit.Leave the board connected to the Raspberry Pi and power up the Pi. Check the voltage between pin 5 (negative) and pin 14 (positive) on U3. It should read about 3.3 volts. With the notch at the top of the chip, these pins are the ones half way down the left side (negative) and right side (positive) of the chip.If the voltage check is not successful, find and fix the fault before proceeding.Power down the Pi and remove the TNC-Pi board from the Pi,then install the 4 ICs. You may wish to bend the pins of the four ICs slightly inward to facilitate inserting them into their sockets. Ensure the notch on the top of each chip lines up with the notch printed on the PC board. Also make absolutely certain that you do not mix up the two 8 pin chips and plug them into the wrong sockets. Note: Nothing will be installed at the 6 pins marked ICSP or the pins marked J.Congratulations, you’re done assembling the TNC-Pi. Schematic Diagram(see next page for parts layout diagram)Parts Layout (for TNC-Pi)Parts Layout (for TNC-Pi 2)Connecting the RadioYou can either wire up a 9 pin D-Sub plug to mate with the one on the TNC-Pi, or, if you’d prefer, you can use the four holes below R7 labeled Radio to hard wire a radio connection. (No header is provided in the kit for this.)If you use the 9 pin D-Sub connection, it should be wired as follows:Pin 1 (the square pad): TX AudioPin 3: Push to Talk (PTT)Pin 5: Receive AudioPin 6: GroundIf you are using the holes marked “Radio” the connections should be:Pin 1 (the square pad): Receive AudioPin 2: GroundPin 3: TX AudioPin 4: Push to Talk (PTT)Adjust transmit audio outputPotentiometer R7 adjusts the level of the transmit audio output. Most people will find that they need to set it fairly near the minimum setting. One way to set this is to use two radios, one to monitor the transmitted signal and the other connected to the TNC-Pi. Key the radio connected to the TNC-Pi manually by pushing the PTT button on it. On the other radio you will hear a continuous tone (even though no data is being transmitted… you don’t need to be running any software on the Raspberry Pi to do this). Turn R7 all the way down and the tone will go away. Then slowly turn it up until the volume doesn’t increase any further in the monitor receiver. When you reach this point, back it off just a little and you should have it about right.Set the transmit delayThe transmit delay (TXDelay) can be set either in software or using R6. The default is to set it in software. To change the TXDelay parameter, you'll need to use the pitnc_setparams program as explained below in the section, REF _Ref369978641 \h Using Xastir.If you set the value of TXDelay to 0 using the pitnc_setparams program, you can then use R6 to set the TXDelay.Most users will find the default setting for TXDelay to be just fine.Configuring the Raspberry Pi (Most of the information in the next two sections was provided by John Wiseman, G8BPQ. )It might be a good idea to make sure your Pi operating system is up to date. You can do this from the command line by entering the following (this assumes you have either hard wired or wireless network connectivity):sudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get upgradeIf you are going to use the serial port to connect the TNC-Pi to the Raspberry Pi, you will need to make a couple of changes to the Pi configuration. Edit the cmdline.txt file in the boot directory and make the following changes:Remove the following (if it exists): console=ttyAMA0, 115200Remove the following (if it exists): kgdboc=ttyAMA0, 115200Note: cmdline.txt is a single line of text.Then edit the inittab file in the etc directory and remove the line that says:T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty –L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100Note: With the Jessie distribution the inittab file no longer exists so you can ignore this step.After removing these lines you will have to reboot the Pi so they can take effect. Unless you like to do command line editing, the easiest way to edit these file will be to start the raspberry Pi GUI interface. Then run LXTerminal and type the following:sudo leafpadThis will run a very nice GUI editor with superuser privileges to allow you to edit system files.Note: If you have a Pi 3 please note the following important information from John Wiseman G8BPQ:It seems that significant changes have been made to the serial port on thePI3./dev/ttyAMA0, which used to appear on the header, is now used for theBluetooth module.There is a new /dev/ttyS0, which appears on the header. BUT its speed varieswith the GPU core clock frequency, and if defaults to a speed of 250/400 ofthe expected speed.I've found a fix that seems to restore the GPU core clock to a fixed 250MHz. and with that I can use the header port as a console at 115200 baud. Itinvolves adding core_freq=250 to /boot/config.txt. However it still appearsas /dev/ttyS0.I also found this post, which seems to allow you to disable Bluetooth andrestore /dev/ttyAMA0 to its original state. using /dev/ttyS0 with pitnc_get/setparams is messy, I've produced newversions that allow the serial port name to be supplied. This not only getsround the problem with /dev/ttyS0, but allows you to configure the TNC via aUSB-Serial TTL converter, either on the PI or another machine. I've alsobuilt Windows versions so you can set a TNC into i2c mode without anotherLinux system. The new versions can be downloaded from: syntax is:./pitnc_getparams /dev/ttyS0 0./pitnc_setparams /dev/ttyS0 0 7 16The old format (./pitnc_getparams 0 0) still works, and uses /dev/ttyAMA0.To sum up, if you use /dev/ttyAMA0 for anything (eg TNC-PI) you are going tohave to make changes to get your system to work on a PI3.Keyboard to Keyboard ConnectionsNote:For the following steps the Raspberry Pi must be connected to the internet.You can use the Linux AX.25 routines to do connected mode packet. To do this you need to install the ax25 apps and tools. From the command line enter the following:sudo apt-get install ax25-toolssudo apt-get install ax25-appsYou’ll need to configure it for your callsign by editing the /etc/ax25/axports file. You’ll find two lines that allow you to enter your callsign. I did so as follows:1?????? W2FS-1? 19200?? 236???? 2?????? TNC 12?????? W2FS-2? 19200?? 236???? 2?????? TNC 2The serial rate must be at 19200, because that is the only baud rate support by TNC-Pi. The next two values (236 and 2 in the above example) are the values for paclen and maxframe. Don’t leave any blank lines in this file.Now attach the serial port to the AX.25 system using kissattach:sudo kissattach /dev/ttyAMA0 1 10.1.1.1??The number in blue above matches the port number from the axports file above. The number in red is an IP address. It’s required here even though you aren’t using the IP protocol on it. Note: If you are using the IP protocol on your TNC-Pi your address should conform to the local convention for IP routing. The address in that case will almost certainly start with 44.You can monitor packets on this channel by entering:sudo axlisten –aYou can connect to another station for keyboard to keyboard QSO’s as follows:axcall 1 hiscallwhere hiscall is the call station of the station to which you want to connect.There seems to be a bug in the axcall routine. The first time you use it after calling kissattach, it will take significantly longer for the Pi to send a valid connect string to the TNC than it does in subsequent attempts. You may have to wait 10 – 15 seconds. Further attempts occur instantaneously. You can abort this first try by issuing a Ctrl-C and then issuing the axcall command again. It will then connect immediately.Support If you have any questions about your TNC-Pi or are having hardware issues with it, please contact John Hansen, W2FS at john@. Software issues, particularly with regard to the Linux version of BPQ are best addressed to the author, John Wiseman, G8BPQ.Additional information can be found on the TNC-Pi website: configuration programs setparams and getparams are available here: NotesUsing Xastir Thanks to M0HPJ for the following informationAnother popular packet program that works well on the Pi is the APRS program Xastir. Note: For the following steps the Raspberry Pi must be connected to the internet.Update the package listTo install Xastir from the command line, first update the package list as follows:sudo apt-get updateThen install Xastirsudo apt-get install xastirKill kissattachIf you have been using the AX25 apps, you’ll need to unload kissattach before Xastir will work. You can do this by simply rebooting the Pi, or you can kill the kissattach process from the command line. To do the latter, first find out what process number it is by using a ps command to list running processes:ps –A|grep kissattachInspect the list to see the process number of the kissattach process, then kill the process using the kill command. For example, if the process number is 2335, issue the command:sudo kill 2335At this point it may be a good idea to rerun the ps command to be certain that the kissattach process was successfully killed.Note: If you have not been using the AX25 apps, it is still necessary to edit the cmdline.txt and inittab files as described in the section on configuring the Pi.Start XastirThen start the X-Windows GUI system with the following command:startxXastir can be found in the programs menu under “other”. The first time you run Xastir you’ll be asked to put in your station parameters. Then you’ll need to specify the port that the TNC-Pi is on. Click on Interface and then Interface Control. Click “Add” and pick “Serial KISS TNC” off the list. Push Add and it will bring up a properties list. Under TNC Port enter: /dev/ttyAMA0Running XastirEverything else is pretty self-explanatory. Do make sure you change the baud rate to 19200. This is not the default. You can select “Maps” and the Map Chooser to select a better set of maps than the default. If you currently have internet connectivity, one of the cloud map options is probably best. If you select a new map option, you should deselect the old one. I haven’t yet explored the option of caching the maps to the local SD card so that I don’t need an Internet connection, but I expect to look into that soon.More informationA much more detailed discussion of running Xastir on the Pi in a mobile environment is contained in a paper presented at the 2013 ARRL/TAPR Digital Communications Conference. It can be found at:: In this paper I discussed using maps that were available from Cloudmade. Since the time that this paper Cloudmade has discontinued free access to these maps. However, the same maps are available from the following source: procedure for obtaining and using the maps is the same as those referenced in the paper for Cloudmade.Configuring TNC-Pi for Use with the I2C ProtocolThe TNC-Pi can be configured to communicate with the Raspberry Pi using the I2C protocol. To configure the TNC-Pi for I2C, you will need a configuration programs pi_tncsetparams and pi_tncgetparams. The getparams program reads the parameters from the TNC-Pi while the setparams program allows you to set them. These programs are available at: using them, however, it will be necessary to make some additional configuration changes to the Pi. First, make the following changes to the following files:In the /etc/modprobe.d/raspi-blacklist.conf file, remove the line: blacklist I2C-bcm2708In the etc/modules file, add the line: i2c-devGet and set parametersNote: Before running the getparams and setparams programs, ensure that kissattach is not running. The pitnc_getparams program lists the values for all of the user-settable parameters. Its syntax is:pitnc_getparams d b where:b is the number of the I2C bus and d is the number of the I2C device on that bus. TNC-Pi is shipped with both of these parameters set to 0. An I2C device number of 0 means the TNC is using the serial port rather than the I2C port. The pitnc_setparams program writes values to the TNC-Pi. Its syntax is:pitnc_setparams d b p vwhere once again b and d are the bus and device, p is the parameter number (1 – 7) and v is the new parameter value. The parameters that you are most like to use are:Parameter valueDescriptionNotes1Sets the TXDelayWith TNC-Pi, you can set the TXDelay either in software using the pitnc_setparams program or in hardware using R6. Setting this parameter to 0 causes the TNC-Pi R6 potentiometer to determine the value.7Sets the I2C addressSetting this to 0 causes data communication on the serial port (default), any other value up to 63 will cause I2C to be used with the TNC using this address. This permits you to use multiple TNC’s with the same Raspberry Pi.The BPQ software for Raspberry Pi is currently in beta and can be found at: you ever need to reset these parameters to their original factory values, this can be done by powering down, turning the TXDelay potentiometer all the way to minimum and then powering back up. You should see the yellow LED flash once per second. When you see it flash, you’ll know that the parameters have all been reset. The power the device back down, move the TXDelay off of minimum and power the device back up.Running Applications other than LinBPQ with TNC-Pi in I2C mode.John Wiseman, G8BPQ, sends along the following information about running other applications using I2C:The TNC-Pi can be used with applications that use the Linux ax.25 stack, or applications that expect to see a KISS TNC on a serial port. Program I2ckiss converts the I2C protocol to a standard KISS presentation on a virtual serial (pty) port. It is available here: copy is run for each TNC-Pi. The first two parameters to I2ckiss are I2C bus, I2C device. If using the kernel ax.25 code, then specify the port number (from axports) and the ip address. To use with other software, specify symlink and a symbolic name - I suggest com1 - com255For example, to use with the Linux ax.25 stack:sudo ./i2ckiss 0 16 1 10.1.1.1i2ckiss will create a pty pair, and execute kissattach on the slave half, using the 3rd and 4th parametersTo use with a KISS application./i2ckiss 0 16 symlink com1i2ckiss? will create a pty pair, then create a symlink to com1. The application would then be configured to use port com1.Note: On Version 1 Pi boards (without mounting holes) the I2C bus number is zero, for the Version 2 boards it is 1.Steps to create an APRS receive-only igate using the Raspberry Pi and TNC-Piby Paul Fischer, KC9RGZEquipment neededRaspberry Pi model BTNC-Pi (from Coastal ChipWorks at ) Power SupplyBlank SD card (4 GB?)Windows PC to format and load the SD cardEthernet cable and router/switch with access to the InternetUSB KeyboardMonitor (I use an old analog TV with RCA jack input)USB Mouse – only if you want to run the graphics environment on the Pi. Not required for text only setup.2M radio or scanner set to 144.39MHz (at least that’s the frequency here in the USA!)InstructionsDownload the boot image for Raspbian “wheezy” (2013-05-25-wheezy-raspbian.zip) from and extract the image (.img) file.On a Windows PC, format the SD card using SDFormatter4exe.zip – also available from . Use the options Format Type “QUICK” and Format Size Adjustment “ON”.On a Windows PC, use Win32DiskImager to write the image on an SD card (also downloadable from above site). Click the folder icon to the right of the Image file box to select the image file from step #1. Use the pull down tab to select the SD card and hit the “Write” button. This process takes a few minutes.Put the SD card in the Rpi; connect the network cable, monitor and keyboard. Then the power supply and it should boot into the raspi-config application. This application can be run again once logged in by running “sudo raspi-config”).In the raspi-config program set these things:Internationalisation Options; Change_locale – choose “en_US. UTF-8 UTF-8”Internationalisation Options; Change_timezone – America; CentralInternationalisation Options; Configure_keyboard – set to “Generic 105-key (Intl) PC; Other; English (US) – English (US,alternative international)”Overscan (Advanced Settings) – set to enableHit right arrow key and select the “Finish” keyReboot: “sudo shutdown –r now”Login with login “pi” and password “raspberry”Upgrade to root privileges “sudo su”If the monitor doesn’t display well (mine didn’t), edit the file /boot/config.txt and uncomment the line:overscan_left=16And then re-boot. The above line will move the display to the left 16 pixels. You can play with the other settings as well until you are happy with the display.Verify the software is up to date (this could take a while)apt-get updateapt-get upgradeEdit the file /boot/cmdline.txt and remove the following parts of the line:console=ttyAMA0,115200 kgdboc=ttyAMA0, 115200Edit the file /etc/inittab and remove the line that says:T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty –L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100Reboot the device using the command:shutdown –r nowThen log back in using userid and password listed above and upgrade to root privileges again.Get the aprx digi/igate software:cd /usr/srcwget : This version of aprx was current at the time these instructions were originally written. There is almost certainly a more recent version available now. To find out what the number of the current version is, go to: ham.oh2mqk/aprx and look for a file that is similar to the one above with a more recent version number and svn number. Then issue the wget command for that file instead of the one referenced above.tar xvf aprx-2.05.svn485.tar.gzcd aprx-2.05.svn485/./configuremakemake installmkdir /var/log/aprxSave a copy of the original aprx configuration filecp /etc/aprx.conf /etc/aprx.conf.origEdit the file /etc/aprx.conf and make sure the following lines are included (please use your own call sign and latitude/longitude). Many of these lines are already included, others just need to be uncommented. Just make sure all of these are included:mycall KC9RGZ-11<aprsis>server noam.</aprsis><logging>pidfile /var/run/aprx.pidrflog /var/log/aprx/aprx-rf.logaprxlog /var/log/aprx/aprx.log</logging><interface>serial-device /dev/ttyAMA0 19200 8n1 KISS</interface><beacon>beaconmode aprsiscycle-size 10mbeacon symbol "/&" lat "4124.57N" lon "09041.26W" comment "RasPi Rx-only iGate"</beacon>Verify the serial port is available:chmod 666 /dev/ttyAMA0Add the following lines to the end of the /etc/rc.local file to start the aprx program:printf “Start the igate daemon… \n”aprxReboot shutdown –r nowLog back in and verify the processes are running ps aux|grep aprxConnect the radio and ensure you are gating data to the aprs network (check the files in /var/log/aprx)Enjoy!Notes:Before the final move to “production”, you should change the password of the “pi” userid!To backup the SD card (after you have it all working, so you don’t have to run the above instructions again!) – On a Windows PC, run the program HDDRAWCopy1.02Portable.exe (available from ). Select the SD card as the SOURCE and hit Continue. Double Click the “File” line to specify the name and location of the backup file (ex. 2013-07-03-wheezy-raspbian-backup). Use a file type of “Raw image (dd image) (*.img)”. Hit Continue, then Start.Restore is done by reversing the source and destination (use the file as the source and the SD card as the destination).

Download Docx File