What is the purpose of research university of new mexico

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What is the purpose of research?

} Operational descriptions

Specific, precise language Allow for replication

} Precise descriptions of criteria used to select participants

} DV is an important target for the participants } Have operational definitions of each DV } The measures used allow direct observation

and empirical summary } Measurement procedures are specifically and

clearly defined } DV(s) are measured repeatedly } Assessed IOA for each DV; IOA meets

minimum standards

Name: On-task behavior

Definition: Orientation of the student toward the appropriate object or person

Examples include: following directions given by the teacher, paying attention to the speaker (peer or adult), and working on assigned tasks.

Non-examples include: playing Free Cell during independent reading activity on computer; talking about girlfriend during science cooperative learning group; staring out of window during independent seat work



} Operational definitions of the intervention components

} Explicit descriptions of materials and procedures

} Systematic manipulation of IV

} Measurement of treatment fidelity (aka, procedural implementation or procedural fidelity)

} Precise descriptions } Demonstrates predictable pattern

} Minimum of three demonstrations of experimental control at three different points in time

} Control of threats to internal validity

} Utilizes multiple participants, settings, materials, and/or targets (behaviors)

} Replication occurs across multiple studies and researchers

} Uses operational descriptions



} Target behaviors (DVs) are socially important

} Degree of change in DV after intervention is socially significant

} Intervention is acceptable to participants and practitioners

} Implementation of the intervention is practical and can be used by "typical" practitioners/parents

1 Experimental Control 2 Individual is unit of analysis 3 IV is actively manipulated 4 DV is measured repeatedly 5 Baseline 6 Design controls for threats to internal validity 7 Use of visual analysis (statistical analysis is

emerging) 8 Systematic replication 9 Experimental flexibility

} Minimum of 5 SCD studies that meet minimal criteria for quality,

} document experimental control,

} published in peer reviewed journals,

} Are conducted by minimum of 3 different researchers across minimum of 3 geographical locations, and

} the 5 studies include a minimum of 20 participants

"The selection of any research methodology should be guided, in part, by the research question(s) under consideration. No research approach is appropriate

for all research questions, and it is important to clarify the types of research questions that any

research method is organized to address" (Horner et al., 2005, p. 172).



1. Clear experimental question is asked 2. Plan developed for measuring events of

interest 3. Data are collected 4. Results are analyzed 5. Results publicly reported 6. Findings replicated

One of the differences between ordinary and really valuable research is the research question asked.

} Where the researcher received graduate training

} Resources available } Experimental and extra-experimental

contingencies } Researcher's personal history

} Question guides selection of the design, measures, procedures, and data analysis.

Participant selection Selection of dependent variable Selection of independent variable Data analysis

"the experimental procedures [should] yield data that answer the question."

} Participant population } Intervention (IV) } Measures (DV) } Hypothesized outcome ? maybe!

"The purpose of the current case study was to examine the use of an antecedent-based intervention implemented in a general education classroom on the occurrence of stereotypic behavior and engagement of a student with ASD. In addition, this case study examined the replication of this intervention with the classroom teacher's assistant in the general education classroom."



1. Demonstration (or replication) 2. Comparison 3. Parametric 4. Component

} Will level of integration influence social interaction between students with severe disabilities and their general education peers?

} How does level of integration influence social interaction between students with severe disabilities and their general education peers?

} Begin with the issues of greatest concern: Is it socially important? Form partnerships with persons with disabilities and their families Talk to practitioners

} Know the research literature: Has it been done? If so, what were the findings? Where might the next step be in this line of research? [Look for gaps, conflicts, weaknesses]

} Be leery of only asking questions that can be answered empirically

} Is it doable: Time/ Resources/ Skills?

} Is it interesting to you?

} Is it the current "hot topic"?

} Our own experiences } Observations } Conversations with others } Literature (NOTE: this is a necessary but not

sufficient step in developing a research question.) } Conferences, talks, classes } Ongoing projects } ? ? ?


Week 4

Measurement & Evaluation Threats to Internal Validity

Replication ? Read:

? Gast, Chapters 5 & 6 (see pp. # in syllabus). ?Kratochwill et al. , pp. 5-11

? Bring a draft research question that you would like to examine using a single case research design to class. Incorporate the elements or writing a good question that we discussed. (You will turn these in.)



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